February 19, 2004
Kokoro-gamae and Image Training
A reader asked be for my opinion of the psychology of gKokoro-gamaeh recently, in reference to the martial arts. While I try to be a psychologist I have not come across research or even mention of the term within academic psychology. Recently indigenous cultural psychologists have started studying terms from languages and cultures outside of the West. I think that a study of Kokoro-gamae wouldbe appropriate to and well recieved in this field (for example at the Asian Association of Social Psychology) However, I have seen no research which refers to kokoro-gamae. So all I can talk about is the way it is used in the Japanese language, and my own theory of its content. Kokoro-gamae is made from kokoro meaning heart or mind, and "kamae" meaning stance-in-preparation-for-something. To Kamae(ru) is to take up a stance in preparation for what is about to happen, like the poses that practioners of the martial arts take, the pose of a cat before it pounces, or the coiling of a snake before it strikes. I guess "to take up a stance" comes closest for me. In this physical realm, the Japanese seem to be keen on poses. Putting ones body into a particular position is seen as being a good preparation for what is to follow. Images of Ultraman (left) spring to mind. But what about "kokoro-gamae"? What sort of position can one put ones heart or mind into? One way in which Kamae is used to express psychology is "sonnnani kamaenakuteiiyo" (lit. you don't need to take up a stance so much ) or "kamaesugi" (youfre taking up a stance too much) which meansomething allong the lines of "don't think so much about it," "chill out!" Kokoro-gamae might I think also refer to something negative. For example one might refer to someone who looks on the negative side of things or is a paranoid, as having a mistaken "kokoro-gamae" they have taken up a mental stance such that even trivial mishaps or conflicts seem like disasters and major put-downs. In all these cases kamae refers to a temporary state of action taken up prior to some event. However, kokoro-gamae in the sense as it is used to describe the mental state of someone that practices the martial arts for instance, is usually different in that it refers to a "stance", not in the usual English sense of someonefs opinion about something, but a state of mental readiness, which is both actively pursued and held over a long period of time. But what is this active pursual, or art, of Japanese mental readiness, kokoro-gamae? How does one take up a mental stance?
As a university-lubber that knows little about kokorogamae in practice, I unpack the concept of kokoro-gamae in the following way 1) Heightened attention. This is the obvious one. Before a fight, when the adrenalin is rushing, one usually enters a state of heightened focused attention. We "get ready," "focus," "put up ones guard," "steel oneself." 2) Calm focus. I guess there are many ways of achieving a heighten state of attention. It is possible that someone who is really "on edge" is very sensitive, and in that sense attentive. But the kokoro-gamae that is pursued here seems to me to particularly calm, even to the point of being peaceful, so as to achieve a greater degree of focus. Which brings us on toc 3) Mental quietness. This is the Zen Buddhist stance, now also well known, which encourages to achieve readiness by reaching a state of emptiness, of immersion in the moment. This *perhaps* departs a little from Western notions of readiness, since in that context one might "plan" or think about ways of attacking. The ultimate Zen warrior is empty, untroubled by plans. Zen books and books on Zen describe this sort of stance very well. There are lots of ways of achieving this "non-stance-stance", such as concentrating on one thing (such as ones breathing), or repeating a phrase (mantra, nembutsu) over an over again, or staring at a picture (mandara). 4) Imagery in Mental preparation. This is my own theory, and again rather trite, since it has a lot in common with Western "image training." That being said, it seems to me to be particularly prevalent in Japan, and in Shinto culture especially. Please see this mail written when my name was still Leuers, particularly about the guy doing "Zen and way of Badminton"http://groups.yahoo.com/group/shintoML/message/1417 The Japanese paths (dou, judou, karatedou) are all very visual. They seem to me to have an air of what I would call "image training" where one often practices, in silence with an emphasis on form, on seeing the self from the outside. It seems to me that Shinto encourages a visual awareness of self and construes the divine as a viewer/seeer rather than a listener/hearer. Some of the paths show a ritual reverence towards the place where the art is carried out, with formalise rituals for entering that place - such as the bow towards the mats of the Doujou or the way in which one should enter the tea ceremony room. It seems to me that Shinto grew out of a reverence for holy places. By way of example, let me tell you about a guy that plays badminton at a club that I attend. He treats the badminton court like a Dojo making sure that he cleans it very well sweeping only in the direction of the floorboards and not against the grain of the wood. He plays with an almost religious attention to detail, and sometimes (this seems particularly moot) he plays without a shuttlecock, *imagining* where the shuttle is flying would be flying if playing against a real opponent. Sometimes he and his accolyte play together, without a shuttlecock, as if taking part in a ballet on a silent badminton court. This silent imaginary badminton that he plays reminded me of what one could call "The way of Badminton" more than anything else. What is this image training and is it Shinto? Misogi? Ritual, in action? Practical ritual? Pure movement? Embodied-ness? The gemptinessh and gback to nature-nessh of Japanese mental readiness is often emphasised. However, this is far from the whole caboodle. I can imagine a person being calmly focused and empty and still being a pretty poor warrior. I have a friend called Will http://nihonbunka.com/william/index.htm who is doing Buddhist training in Scotland. But even assuming that Will achieves enlightenment, and even assuming that he is strong and fit, I don't think that Will will become a particularly good warrior. Hence it seems to me that there is another component of "kokoro-gamae" which entails what one might call "training ones unconscious." Using the world gunconscioush at once sounds disrespectful and unfair. It seems a very Western appellation. Who am I to call that part of my mind that controls my bodily movements "unconscious." It reacts, and proacts towards events in the world all the time. However from the point of view of timothy-that-is-speaking, from the point of view of the intellect, "it" is other. Timothy decides what he wants to say, but who is it that presses the keys? In Zen Buddhism it is clear that one empties or silences the workings of ones intellect. However that does not mean that the mind ceases to work at all. A lot of processing is being done, but it is being done "elsewhere." No matter how much intellectual processing power we spend in preparation, this will be largely useless if we silence our intellect. But this does not mean that it is impossible to train the mind at all. So it seems to me that there is a lot of what one might call "image training" going on here in Japan and this forms a significant part of the active art of "kokoro-gamae." As a result the "unconscious" mind is honed, to such a degree that, without thinking, the move is made, the opponent hits the tatami mat, or is swept out of the ring. All this was rather a glimpse of the obvious. More attempts need to be made to outline what it is about the "image training" aspect of kokoro-gamae. 1) Through training does one become one with ones image or oneself or on the contrary does one become free of ones image of oneself (the latter, me thinks)? 2) Does it involve creating mental images of things (hmmm)? 3)Is there any playback of images at the time of action (surely not)? 4) Are these things social, such as imagining getting the gold medal (western athletes do do this apparently, but I don't think that this is what is going on here)? 5) Is the self seen from the outside (not sure)? 6) Does one imagine a gaze (Chiyonofuji used to imagine girls watching him do Sumo! I find it effective to imagine my father is watching me when I run!)? I am sure that the art of kokoro-gamae is very different from Western-style image training, and that there are many other aspects of gkokoro-gamae.h Please let me know if you find any more.
February 14, 2004
Etymology of Kami
The deities or spirits of Shinto are called kami but, while there are many homonyms (the words for "above", "hair", "paper", and "bite") the etymology of the word Kami is not known. For a long time it was though that it was from the word "kami" meaning above (written with the same character as "ue"). However with the discovery by a scholar, called Hashimoto in 1917, that there were more vowels in ancient Japanese, this theory was rejected.
The Vowels in Ancient Japanese
In Japanese today there are only 5 vowel sounds ("a, i, u, e, o," as we say in Japan) and till 1917 it was presumed that the same was true of ancient Japanese as well. However, Hashimoto noticed that there were clear rules for using two, distinct groups of characters to express what is today a single sound, "ko." The only, or at least accepted, explanation for this fact is that there used to be two different sounds. The same patterns were discovered for the vowel "i" and "e," meaning that there may have been 8 types of vowel in ancient Japanese, which we can write as: a, i1, i2, u, e1, e2, o1, o2.
These vowel distinctions were dying out quite rapidly. For example while there are two types of "mo" in the Kojiki (712), this distinction died out in the Nihongi (720, Nihonshoki) which was written only a few years later. And there are further complications in that some of the "extra" vowels are rarerly used, and then only in loan words. But it seems at least that a finer grade of vowel distinction did exist, and this enables us to make better judgements of etymology.
With the distinction, it became apparent that the "i" in kami = diety/spirit, and the i in kami = above are different.
The Ancient Vowel Sounds Continue Today
With regard to to the "i" vowel, the distinction between two types of "i" continues in present day Japanese. It seems that second type of "i" was somewhere nearer an "o" or "u" sound! I am not sure how to pronounce an "i" similar to "o" or "u" but I think that it was probably a "ui" or "oi" sound as we shall see.
The distinction between these two vowel sounds continues even today. For example, while "hi" as in sun, and "hi" as in fire are often thought to be of related etemology, the two were in fact written as "hi1" and "hi2," with two different types of vowel. The word for tree "ki" is another example of the second type, which we can write as "ki2." Even today these "i2" words are sometimes pronounced as "o." For example the light/shadow (the pattern it throws) of a fire is written with the character for fire and shadow, normally "hi" and "kage," but pronounced "hOkage" (with emphasis added). Similarly the word for the shade of a tree is written with the character for tree and shade, normally pronounced "ki" and "kage" but here pronounced even today as "kOkage." Similarly the "leaves of trees," is pronounced "kO no ha" as opposed to "ki no ha," berries, as "kO no Mi" and the dappled sunlight beneath trees, "kO-more-bi" (tree-overflowing-sunlight) The same "i2" is also found to change to "u," as in the god of the moon "TsukUyomino-mikoto" where the first "tsuku" is written with the character for moon, normally pronounced "TsukI" -- the "ki" was pronounced as "ku."
Returning to "kami," in the ancient "Manyougana" notation (i.e. in a notation similar to that used in the ancient Manyoushuu poem collection of poem, but this is in fact from the explanations of names of gods in the kojiki) kami is written as , as well as the character used today
In the form, the character for "mi" belongs to the i2 category. Hence, like other i2" words, kami is sometimes pronounced "kamu." For example, in ancient Japanese, "Kamikaze" (divine wind, and "suicide pilot") was pronounced "Kamukaze." Similarly there are the words "Kamu-sabi" (godly behaviour), and kamu-yo (the age of the gods. The Ainu for "kami" is "kamui," and it is thought that this is close to the ancient Japanese pronunciation. This also explains why "kami" often become "kan" in compounds, such as "Kannazuki" (November, the month when all the gods go to Izumo) and kanzaki place name, since abbreviation of "u" ("dekinu" > "dekin," "desu" > "des") and changing m's to n's ("yomu" > "yonda") happens all the time in Japanese. So what of the etymology of "kami"? First of all it is clearly different to that of "kami" meaning "above," since the latter is written with a "mi" belonging to the first category of vowel "i1" so this explanation of the etymology of Kami is incorrect.
Since in ancient Japanese the word for hair (now also "kami") was "ka" (as in "shiraga" or white/grey hair), and the mi uses i1, that etymological connection is also rejected. There is at the present time no accepted theory for the etymology of "kami." So let's make one!
Kami and Kami= Paper?
I used to think that kami as in paper, might be related or derived from kami (god) since there is so much paper at Japanese shrines: the ziz-zap lighenting strips or shide, the talismen (fuda), and fortune sripts (omikuji). Additionally, as I have mentioned before, I think there is a philosophical case to be made for the assertion that paper and god have something in common -- paper is the place where the sign meets the world.
There are several theories for the etymology of paper, one of them being "kami" (spirit) but the most popular theory is that is it is derived from the Chinese word "kan" (as in shokan, meaning letter). And once again, the "mi" of kami (paper) is i1, not the i2 of kami (god).
Kami as "bite"
By chance one oft the leaders in computerisation of the Manyoushuu, Dr. Yoshimura, is at my Yamaguchi university. You can download a Japanese version of the Manyoushuu together with a program for searching within it from his website at by entering your name and your email address. This truly wondrous piece of software enable us to look at the use of kami in the ancient book of poems.
In the Manyoushu, kami is written using the single usual Chinese character that it has today (made of parts meaning "point" and "say humbly"), so it is difficult to see what the etymology of the Japanese word might be. However, it is worth noting that kami often appears in the compound "Kannagara," where "nagara" is translated as "being at the original essence of."
Hence the old name for Shinto (kami and mich or path) was "kan-nagara no michi" meaning "path following the original essence of god."
"Nagara" is usually written with an ideographic kanji which elsewhere is read as "mani-mani" which means "as is" or "at the mercy of." The only occurrence of "mani-mani" in the modern dictionary of Japanese (alc.co.jp) is "nami no mani-mani" which means at the mercy of the waves. Hence "Kan-nagara no mich" might also be translated as "the path of putting yourself at the mercy of god"
However, and where my other wacko kami theory comes in, today the word "nagara" is usually put on the end of verbs, to mean "while doing." For example "Ongaku wo kiki-nagara benkyou suru" means "study while listening (kiku > kiki ) to music" . And indeed, this "nagara" also used in the ancient poems (manyoushu) both as one way of writing the "nagara" after "kami" and one way of writing the "nagara" after a verb "ii nagara" - while saying. Indeed the phonetic reading of "Nagara" is only used after the character for kami and after verbs.
It is difficult to come up with a reason why this should be. Why should a deity be a "bite"? It should be remembered that the gods of the imperial lineage were created from biting and crunching up, when Susano and Amaterasu met at entrance to heaven and bit and crunched up each other accessories! And biting was also the way that they used to make that religious nectar sake.
So there is a possibility that "kami" was originally a verb. This brings us to the last homonym of kami, which is the noun form of the verb "kamu," meaning "to bite" or "to chew". So perhaps kami originally mean a bite or a chew? I am not sure which of the@vowels for "i" is is written with, since the word for chew does not appear in the Manyoushuu. However, in the scene where Amaterasu and Susano bite things, the word "kami" is written phonetically with mi1. So this, for the same reason that we rejected the idea that kami means above, it seems. The true etymology of kami remains a mystery.
Kami as Abbreviation of Mirror.
One final theory for the meaning of kami is an abbreviation of "mirror," kagami. The chances of this are not strong since it is not common for etymological explanations to suggest that words are formed by abbreviating their centre, and the etymological explanations of mirror do not usually suggest a link. Kagami is said to originate in "kage mi" or "look (miru > mi) at a shadow or image (kage)," or the noun form of "kagamu" to bend over, since the first mirrors were surfaces of water, over which one bent over (I like this theory, and believe that there are many such gbendings overh = kagami = mirrors in the Kojiki)
While the etymological reasoning for supposing that kami is an abbreviation of kagami are not that strong, the connection is pointed by shinto theologians, such as the founder of the Kurozumi sect. They point out that kagami is the symbol of the soul but the soul of man contains ego "or ga." Kami is the soul of man (kagami) without the ego (ga).
However, once again, the mi of miru (see) and hence "kage-mi" (shadow-watch) and kagami is i1.
Like other 2nd vowels, mi2 is very rare in all words occuring in yami (darkness) and mi (self, nut,
The only other word "kami" that uses i2 (the rarer of the two sounds) is "kami-nari" or thunder. Since "nari" means sound, I had presumed that thunder was originally "the sound of god," and hence the word for thunder derived from the word for god and not the other way around. However, the character for thunder was sometimes written as "kami" alone, so it is conceivable that the relationship was in the reverse direction.
Text of the Kojiki in Japanese
Are "paper" "hair" "above" and God the same word
Norinaga notices that Kami as god and Kami as above are written differently.
Professor Yoshimura Makoto's homepage
Professor Yyoshimura's Manyoushuu Corner
The Registration Page for Professor Yoshimura's Manyoushu
The Manyoushuu at the University of Virginia
Ancient Online Digital books.
More Ancient Online Digital Books in Japanese
A list of the words in the Kojiki, Nihonshoki and Manyoushu for which the vowel types are known